Foral Aroma

Floral Aroma is one of the main categories of aromas/odors that you will find in beer. It is one of the main aroma categories of Harper’s Scale. Typically Floral Aroma is contributed through hops or adjuncts. One exception is rose aroma that can be the result of the fusel alcohol phenyl ethanol (2-phenylethanol) or the […]

Harper’s Scale

There are hundreds of aromas commonly found in hops, however Harper’s scale, published in 1985 in the Atlas of Odor Character Profiles, is today seen as the standard. Aroma Description Floral Elderflower, chamomile blossom, lily of the valley, jasmine, apple blossom, rose, geranium, carnation, lilac, lavender Citrus Grapefruit, orange, lemon, lime, bergamot, lemon grass, ginger, […]


Plato Gravity Scale measures the amount of dissolved solids in a liquid. In the context of beer Degrees Plato (°P) measures the (primarily) dissolved sugar in the wort/beer. Measurements are done at 20°C using either a calibrated refractometer or hydrometer. You can convert °P to Specific Gravity by applying this formula:

Decoction mashing

Decoction mashin is an old mashing technique where a portion of the mash is removed, boiled, and then reintroduced to the main mash. The most common decoction technique is the triple decoction where mash is removed, boiled and reintroduced to the main mash three times. Decoction mashin is an old technique, probably older than the […]

Forward sealing beer tap

Forward sealing beer taps contain an inner o-ring (or other seal) that insulates the beer left inside the tap after use from oxygen. The seal makes these taps resistant to a common problem with plunger taps where the beer left inside the tap can dry, making the tap stick and harder to open. This makes […]

CO2 Purge

CO2 purging is a technique where you remove the oxygen in a bottle/can/keg in order to prevent oxidation of your beer. CO2-purging can be done in multiple ways, usually through using pressurized CO2. Counter-pressure taps (like the Tapcooler) and Beerguns lets you purge bottles by connecting a CO2 container. Kegs can be purged directly through […]

Lager Yeast

aka “Saccharomyces pastorianus”, “S. pastorianus”, “Saccharomyces carlsbergensis” or “Saccharomyces monacensis”, “bottom-fermenting yeast”. Saccharomyces pastorianu named in honour of Louis Pasteur, is the yeast that we commonly refer to as “bottom-fermenting” lager yeast. Genetically ale yeasts and lager yeasts are very closely related. So closely in fact that they are often considered to be members of […]

Organic Acids

The most important organic acids found in beer are acetic, citric, lactic, malic, pyruvic and succinic acids. Organic acids gives a “sour” or “salty” taste to beers. Some of these organic acids are derived from malt and are present at low levels in wort, with their concentrations increasing during fermentation.

Wild Yeast

While wild yeast is sometimes intentionally catered for and wanted (see brett), there are several species that can negatively affect beer. Among non-Saccharomyces wild yeast, those such as Pichia, Rhodotorula, Kluyveromyces, and Candida can negatively affect the quality of beer by causing haze or a film on the surface. Additionally, they may produce off-flavors such […]


Phenols is a group of molecules that contribute phenolic flavors and aromas. Phenol is always present in beers, in the form of polyphenols such as tannins. Polyphenols are derivatives of hops and malt, and contribute to a dry mouthfeel. Some (sometimes) wanted phenols are 4VG (clove, spicy, herbal), 4-EP (farmyard, medicinal, mice) and 4-ethylguaiacol (smoked […]